Five Most Significant Problems of Education in Tanzania

All individuals that are under the age of eighteen years have a right to education. However, hundreds of thousands of youths and children in Tanzania are on the bottom rung of education. According to Human Rights Watch: all year long, children under the age of 18 are forced to drop out of school because:

  • The students fail the Primary School Leaving Exam
  • Early pregnancies
  • A pro-poor focused education

Contributing Factors to Low Education

The first president of Tanzania, the late Honorable Julius Nyerere, created a culture that would help the citizens achieve self-reliance. The early curriculum aimed at equipping the students with the necessary skills necessary for self-sufficiency in the rural areas. Post-primary education was reserved for a few citizens who would provide the workforce for the country. Primary school was terminal for the majority of the Tanzanians making the system a pro-poor focused education.

The majority of the students face a lot of academic drawbacks, and the parents offer little or no financial support, the teachers are not competent, high incidences of expulsion especially the girl child due to early pregnancies, and lack of infrastructural facilities. Failing to pass the public secondary education entry exam.

Analyzing the weak education system from the students’ angle, the students themselves chose not to put in the time, hard work and focus at school. Instead of sending most of their time immersed in their books, they are busy chatting with friends on social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook or Instagram among many other social sites. The students end up wasting time on the internet instead of conducting academic research and other academic engagements.

Significant Problems Facing Education in Tanzania

What are the shortcomings the Tanzania government schools face for the system to fail to provide the Tanzanian children with their fundamental rights?

1. The Teachers

The pro-poor focused education system in the early years contributed to a lack of qualified teachers leading to the deterioration of the quality of education offered in the public schools. The problem is magnified by the expansion of primary schools and not secondary schools leading to reduced transition rates. Development of primary schools increased the demand for more teachers, and yet there aren't enough secondary school graduates, the teachers are primary school dropouts.

2. Cultural and Social Norms in Tanzania

The Tanzanians have a negative attitude towards education. In some cultures, the girl child lacks training. In such communities, female children should carry out household chores while awaiting marriage. Why educate a girl child, and yet she will get married and end up benefiting her new family instead? Besides a female child attracts the bride price and the community, therefore, do not see the importance of education.

In the less privileged areas, the children walk for hours before getting to school. On their way to school, the female students encounter sexual harassment that leads to unwanted pregnancies. A pregnant pupil is expelled from school, and once they give birth, it is impossible for them to continue with their education. In other instances, most girls are married off at a very young age paralyzing their education.

3. Poor Infrastructural Facilities

There is no debate the Tanzanian schools lack the necessary infrastructure like classrooms which affects the children’s desire to learn. Example, in some schools the class is built from grass, and there is no reading desks or cloakrooms, imagine what happens when it rains, the lessons are disrupted. Other factors that affect learning include:

  • Lack of electricity both at school and at home, it is thus difficult for the student to have evening studies or do their homework
  • Inadequate supply of water forcing the children to walk several kilometers in search of water.
  • Lack of sanitary towels for the female child.

4. The Inadequacy of Learning Materials

Availability of the required academic materials will improve the literacy level of the children. However, the children in the public schools lack proper books. The students are required to take extensive notes which is, and in other instances, the children use only one book among ten students. The challenges cause the children to lack the skills to handle specific topics. The situation is worse for students with special needs as their books are hard to find.

5. The Crowded Classrooms

The students are many, but the schools are few. A class may consist of 200 pupil’s sharing desks and textbooks and being taught by a single teacher. The disproportionate number of children to teachers fails to impart knowledge to the children.

In conclusion, I suggest the government to deploy a monitoring team. The role of the team will be visiting the public schools and examining the teachers, the level of infrastructure, availability of learning materials and other vital issues. If these are implemented, the system will ensure the students get a quality education and the necessary skills.


Victimization

Introduction

Victimization is a critical aspect in the state of California. The crime rates result to victimization and may have negative influences on a person. Criminal activities can arise, and there should be a law to protect the victims. It is critical to have justice to the victims by not making assumptions about the aspect of victimization. However, some individuals fight for victim compensation, and this ends up increasing the victimization rates. The media plays a part in increasing victimization issues through the provision of prominence to the families with the victims.

In California, there is the aspect of the conventional crimes that affect the victims and may contribute to adverse effects to them. The social aspects such as the self-worth and the self-esteem are affected by victimization. Confusion, as well as frustration, may arise from the individual who has been victimized. However, physical influences are also experienced by the victims. The physical impacts may include suffering from insomnia as well as loss of appetite. Overcoming the fear is a challenge to the victims as they may have no idea about what to result after the occurrence of a crime. In the state, some individuals prevent the occurrence of being involved in an offense by some ways. Creation of the awareness about the surrounding and having safety precautions that may help a person from evading the criminal activities.

Victimization Theories

Victimization has various types of theories. The principles provide detailed information about victimization and victims in the study of crime. There are situations where the methods share common assumptions regarding victimization. The theories include lifestyle theory, victim precipitation, equivalent group hypothesis, proximity hypothesis, and the routine activities.

The victim precipitation theory makes the assumption that the victims trigger the criminals to act due to their behavior. In this theory, the victim’s behavior cause the occurrence of the crime. The theory may be divided into either active or passive precipitation. The active victim precipitation when the victim initiates the criminal to perform a crime.

The passive victim precipitation may be due to personal conflict or when the victim unknowingly provokes the criminal. Lifestyle theory is a conventional theory, and it suggests that the victims expose themselves to risk state when they are involved in the risky activities which are influenced by their lifestyles. The lifestyle theory focuses on the social structure whereby the male, young and poor people have more chances of becoming victims.

Lifestyle theories of victimization is a victimization theory that states that the demographic differences are caused by the differences in the lifestyles of the victims. The variation in the lifestyles of individuals is critical because it reduces the risks of being exposed to insecure states. The lifestyle of a person influences the occurrence of criminal activity. Different attributes such as gender, marital status, and education can change the lifestyles of individuals.

The Routine activity theory. The theory has some similar aspects with the lifestyle theory of victimization. The theories explain how a routine of activities such as lifestyles can influence the occurrence of the crime. The changes in the routine of performing activities affect the crime rates.

Conclusion

In summation, victimization is an issue that requires legal concerns and legal frameworks to curb the matter in the state of California. It is evident that victimization has adverse effects on the affected person both emotionally and physically. Safer plans should be prepared to help people from being involved din criminal activities which may result to victimization.



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